For the most part we only have a theory on how planets are formed and even how these planets magnetic fields are generated. even earths plate-tectonics are only a theory, granted though this theory seems a very fitting model to what we see and observe.
However there are problems with some of these theory's for a start at the time of writing we have earths magnetic field at about 11.05 degrees off alignment with earth's physical axial rotation. This also appears to be altering at an increasing rate, we have found nothing that is satisfiable in current day physics to explain how this could be. Current theory dictates that the earth's magnetic field is generated by electrically conductive materials (molten iron core) within the earth which generate the magnetic field via its spin. This theory would be sound enough except for the 11.05 degrees asymmetric problem. If its spin that generates the feild then this should cause a relitive spin within the aearth more fluid matter to be in relitive alinement with the physical axis and spin It should be inline with the physical spin.
Progress is being made though,the basics of current theory assumes that planet formation is simultaneous with formation of its parent star. how this is thought to occur is that the huge gas cloud is disturbed , as a result of this it leads up to a gravitational collapse and eventually increases in spin, this eventually forms a hot dense centre known as a proto ‘parent’ star - leaving behind a thin cooling disc of gas. As the disc gets thinner, particles begin to collapse in and eventually become planets and those planets also end up with moons. it may sound reasonable and good , however we typically only see a final fully formed planet and as a result it is difficult to get a complete picture of the formation process and test these theories.
However this is changing,a team of research scientists were able to obtain the first ever image of an exoplanet in the process of forming. To achieve this the scientists used the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) instrument, on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), which features a coronagraph to block out the stars light, creating an artificial eclipse, and revealing the faint corona and any orbiting planetary bodies. The observations revealed the presence of a new-born gas giant orbiting its parent dwarf star PDS 70 scientists were able to photograph and determine its distance from the parent star to be 1.9 million miles. Further analysis showed that the temperature of this baby planet (~ 1200 Kelvin) is much hotter than fully formed planets which is what to be expected and inline with current theory.
This research has huge implications, as now for the first time, scientists are able to observe and study the different stages of stellar formation. This will hopefully lead to new insights and a better understanding of the key processes involved in planetary and solar system formation.
RESEARCHED SOURCES AND SOURCE LINKS