Although its an old discovery some scientific authors and even general bloggers,publishers are releasing more data and perspectives on the Sonoluminescence effect. This was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 during work related to sonar technologies.
H. Frenzel and H. Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of photographic developer fluid. They were doing this in the hope that is would speed up the development process. Instead, they noticed tiny dots on the film after developing and realized that the bubbles in the fluid were emitting light with the ultrasound turned on. At the time It was too difficult to analyze the effect in early experiments because of the complex environment of a large number of short-lived bubbles. A new acronym was later used to refer to the effect as MBSL (MULTI-BUBBLE SONOLUMINESCENCE).
years later In 1960 Dr. Peter Jarman from the Imperial College of London proposed the most reliable theory of Sonoluminescence phenomenon. The collapsing bubble generates an imploding shock wave that compresses and heats the gas at the center of the bubble to extremely high temperature. This wasn't proven until later in 1989 when D. Felipe Gaitan and Lawrence Crum, who produced stable single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL)., a single bubble trapped in an acoustic standing wave emits a pulse of light with each compression of the bubble within the standing wave.
This technique allowed a more practical study of the phenomenon, because it isolated the complex effects into one stable, predictable bubble. It was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel, as seen in an experiment done in 2012, below is a video related to this
The temperature inside the bubble as it collapsed reached about 12,000 kelvins. Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one million kelvins was postulated. This temperature is thus far not conclusively proven; however recent experiments conducted by the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign indicate temperatures around 20,000 K (19,700 °C; 35,500 °F)
We will be adding more on this later and how it might be used to high energy effciancey with out needs for fossil fuels industry energy technologies. The fact they we are even still using fossil fules for energy tech at all is a sure sign that rich oil companies really dont wan to let go of the power game thay have. we will explian more soon hang tight!
Austen Heinz, is the founder and CEO of Cambrian Genomics,who has shared with the public some incredible news , CG(Cambrian Genomics) are developing hardware and systems for laser printing DNA of living organisms. Before we get to exited in a sci-fi tangent of thought we should get into some details first. this is incredible and has many practical applications for the future and implications.
At the time of writing the current challenge for synthetic biology is that despite scientists now having the potential to create new organisms that can do infinite number of things, the short term cost of synthesizing DNA has been prohibitively expensive. all that is about to change, Presently researchers in the industry order or clone over a billion dollars worth of DNA each year. Austen is developing his company’s technology to change this problem in a big way, he now has a way to provide a new technique to synthesize DNA 10,000 times cheaper than any known technology. One of the difficulties with DNA synthesis is error correction during fabrication to make the correct sequence of A, T, G and Cs – which represent the building blocks of DNA.
Cambrian Genomics have solved this problem by fabricating billions of strands simultaneously, quickly and cost effectively. Their technology optically sequences the strands and then selects the correct DNA sequences using a fast-moving laser.
The company's plan really is to create the print button for biology in order to 'democratise' creation and enable researcher's to literally write code for living organisms. This is fascinating and of course creates some scary perspectives on how this could be used.
. According to Austen the applications of this technology has the potential to be used for personalised medicine, such as cancer treatments, or even bringing back extinct animals using the available DNA code recovered from the fossils. its early on in this technology development , but just like more popularised known forms of 3D printing out there we have seen how fast this kind of tech develops.
As a writer and researcher I can not emphasis enough when i say '3D printing will leave no aspect of human life untouched'
As 3D printing tech evolves past A mere one material set per print into meta material's
(multiple materials per print into a set matrix to generate intelligent materials and or materials that would not be possible by other conventional means) we might end up seeing advances in wearable technologies with multi-functional attributes,In theory there are many advances that could happen with this. From hydrophobic materials that stay dry to fabric that self repairs! for now I will leave rest to your imagination.
The possibilities really are endless but the cost and time is of course an implication. In the previous article I hinted at atomic level 3D printing. Well how about sub atomic,which would be a quantum level of manipulation.
Technological progress almost never travels on a linear direction but instead goes on an exponential curve, meaning that as time goes by the rate of progress on any technology increases exponentially instead of linearly. 3D printing has been slow in progress and is older than most think but it does fall into this exponential progress category. We have seen many leaps of progress within the last few years alone–and if one quantum materials researcher, Jennifer Hoffman, has her way, we may be on the verge of an incredibly rapid advancement within the industry.
Hoffman is a former professor of physics at Harvard University, she later joined the University of British Columbia (UBC) as the Canada Excellence Research Chair in quantum materials and devices based on oxide heterostructures. At her new position she aims to create a research program that focuses on combining and creating new quantum materials with atomic precision. To take things a step further she is trying to create a method of 3D printing incredibly tiny objects, which can be measured only on an atomic scale.
Of course this may sound like fiction and even a little insane ,however For those unfamiliar with the world of quantum materials, these are materials which are not yet completely understood, even by some of the most advanced scientists. The everyday laws of classical physics cannot explain the almost 'spooky' interactions found within such materials, which can possess incredibly useful magnetic and electronic properties. However The exploratory minds project always seeks to try and offer a relatively reasonable perspective on such things that are not understood in a bigger picture or how the quantum level does have attributes related to the macro. In short we believe the universe and everything in it is 1 thing. there is no separate aspects like space then there's matter. That is an illusion via our perceptions, we claim instead that matter is an extension of the space itself.
These views while in the current climate and time of writing are very different and controversial are often explained in better terms with more details in our videos and articles we recognise that these perspectives are rare in mainstream and so there is much to write about. Offering new perspectives instead of 1 singular view point is far better than using things like a silly big bang theory which never satisfiably backed itself up for decades and never will in many peoples opinion, and while also sounding like a religious miracle, its almost paranormal that it was never slated much earlier in its false acceptance. bear in mind mainstream views the quantum level as almost paranormal too or to quote einstein on quantum entanglement , he described it as 'spooky action at a distance' , but that is only because there is something they are misunderstanding. We breath a sigh of relief though that such things are now being excluded from physics. There is a lot of fragmentation though and heated debate. And so its all the more important to revisit older physics mantras and see how that became just that. a mantra and not a true analysis or scientific discernment.
Ok after all this rant, to bring us back to the matter at hand
Darpa have created an invisibility cloak for sound. This deceivingly simple looking tech could hide objects from sonar although its creation was anything but simple and required some complex math. Engineers from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, claim that unlike other efforts, the acoustic cloaking device works in all three dimensions,no matter which direction a sound is coming from at this structure it will not give a reliable sound bounce back.
This device looks like a layered pyramidal structure and is constructed using plastic plates with a repeating pattern of holes that are stacked on top of one another. Its design means that sound waves can be manipulated by plastic and air.
The cloak alters the sound waves’ trajectory to match what they would look like had they had reflected off a flat surface.
This is due to the sound wavesnot penetrating the pyramid, but they are travelling a shorter distance, which in turn affects the wave's speed. The device then reroutes these slower sound waves to create the impression that both the cloak and anything beneath it are not there.
below is an image of the device .
Bogdan Popa, a graduate student in electrical and computer engineering, shows off the 3D acoustic cloak he helped design and build as a member of Steven Cummer’s laboratory. If you ever wanted to dupe an enemy sonar into thinking their sonar is hitting nothing this new cloaking device is perfect for such need, this is a mathematical marvel of engineering.
Professor of electrical and computer engineering at Duke, Steven Cummer, explains on Duke’s website that 'the particular trick we’re performing is hiding an object from sound waves.” “By placing this cloak around an object, the sound waves behave like there is nothing more than a flat surface in their path,'
Accomplishing this nifty trick would be difficult without harnessing the power of metamaterials, which result from combining existing materials in ways that force them to alter their properties and behave unnaturally. The acoustic cloak is essentially just plastic and air cleverly combined, according to Cummer. Once the sound hits the structure, the result of painstaking mathematical calculations by engineers comes into play. It goes as far as fooling the sound as to how far it travels, making it compensate for its surroundings. The deceptively simple design is anything but, the professor explains.
“I promise you that it’s a lot more difficult and interesting than it looks. We put a lot of energy into calculating how sound waves would interact with it. We didn’t come up with this overnight,” Cummer said.
The project was clearly a success for Duke, who tested it on a small cloaked sphere and bounced sounds off of it with a microphone, then doing the same without the device. Prospects for development are, understandably, endless the cloak’s creators believe. The cloak could in future be used to fool enemy sonar, as well as for things like architectural acoustics, to compensate for the conflict between sound and the structural requirements of a building.
But this is not the first time the military has thought of something like this. Of course, the ability to cheaply 3D-print it is a huge bonus, but the concept of using metamaterial, as well as the principle of making sound pass around an object go back some time.
America’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been at it for ages, announcing in 2007 that they’d like to be able to make a whole military vehicle inaudible. In their 2008 defense budget they write that the effort will use directed ultrasound technology to enable the capability to significantly reduce sound emissions from large scale tactical military hardware. Theory predicts that nonlinear effects of high-power acoustic radiation on the atmosphere can cause acoustic energy to dissipate, rather than radiate.
By System Admin on Monday, November 26, 2018, 16:14
Ok by now anyone interested in the latest technologies will have heard of 3D printing by now. I'm not one to rub it in and shout I told you so! But well I told you so! . As the founder of the exploratory minds project I've always said this tech will change the world and cause a huge paradigm shift. That maybe a little dramatic for some but read on and we shall see why i speak the in ways I do.
If we think in terms of graphical resolution that gave computers higher accuracy over time , this is really how 3D printing has been evolving since its conception. Increasingly the 3D technologies resolution of smaller and smaller particles to manipulate onto a layer in 3D printing are bringing in improvements of more and more intricate details within a given finite space. I predict at some point an atomic level of manipulation. The practical problem is the higher in particle resolution you go the more time is needed in a creation and more effort to maintain a level of accuracy during the actual production. One of the most paradigm shifting aspects of 3D printing is in the creation of biological materials.
On June 14th 2017— 30,000 feet above the gulf of mexico, a Zero Gravity Corp. (ZERO-G) aircraft took up members of three high-tech companies involved in a technology partnership, NASA contractor Techshot Inc., industrial 3D bioprinter and electronics printer manufacturer nScrypt Inc., and bioink developer Bioficial Organs Inc. went up in the ZERO-G craft.
These type of flights are often used for entertainment/tourism purposes,this includes space tourism and the government. However this time around the trip up had a much more scientific purpose in mind for the sustained microgravity conditions possible for several seconds at a time.
To quote Techshot they have a “space hardened 3D bioprinter,” , this printer went up with the team, showcasing in an incredible way each company’s unique offerings and the results of their combined efforts to actually bioprint human tissues and, eventually, organs in orbit!.
'It’s like drawing with a fine-point pen rather than a crayon. Some of the tips on our 3D electronics printers are nearly as small as a single human cell,' nScrypt Chairman and CEO Kenneth Church, PhD.
Like I say above the resolution is getting higher. once the tech is adapted to the level where you get a resolution of atomic accuracy, you then get to print the molecules that make up cell membranes, probably a very long way off but providing mankind does not destroy itself first we will see this ability I guarantee it.
The partnership, led by Techshot, will be putting data collected from this test flight to use to continue work on their goals of creating viable, transplantable human organs. Of course this research supports an organ supply for patients here on Earth — but also extend's into the farther reaches of the future when longer-term space travel,or even off planet colonization may be possible. , Executive Vice President and CEO of Techshot John Vellinger, is optimistic about the results from this flight and what it means for the future.
Vellinger’s next aspiration for this technology is to take what they’ve learned and incorporate it into a next generation bioprinting, which is set to be more robust and have a smaller footprint. The bioprinter was also intended for launch aboard a commercial Blue Origin suborbital space capsule which may well have already happened as this news dates back to Jun 17, 2016, we haven't found any data or news related to the progress yet. but on board the ISS would be where it would operate autonomously,and planed to print “thicker, more complex tissues,” as Techshot notes. The first expected test run for the ISS bioprinter is a beating human heart patch, as the machine is planned to build in pacing wires and biosensors to the tissues.